What Tech Is Next for the Solar Industry?

The technology that’s surprised almost everyone is conventional crystalline silicon. A few years ago, silicon solar panels cost $4 per watt, and Martin Green, professor at the University of New South Wales and one of the leading silicon solar panel researchers, declared that they’d never go below $1 a watt. “Now it’s down to something like 50 cents of watt, and there’s talk of hitting 36 cents per watt,” he says.The U.S. Department of Energy has set a goal of reaching less than $1 a watt—not just for the solar panels, but for complete, installed systems—by 2020 (see “Why Solar Installations Cost More in the U.S. than in Germany”). Green thinks the solar industry will hit that target even sooner than that. If so, that would bring the direct cost of solar power to six cents per kilowatt-hour, which is cheaper than the average cost expected for power from new natural gas power plants. (The total cost of solar power, which includes the cost to utilities to compensate for its intermittency, would be higher, though precisely how much higher will depend on how much solar power is on the grid, and other factors.)All parts of the silicon solar panel industry have been looking for ways to cut costs and improve the power output of solar panels, and that’s led to steady cost reductions. Green points to something as mundane as the pastes used to screen-print some of the features on solar panels. Green’s lab built a solar cell in the 1990s that set a record efficiency for silicon solar cells—a record that stands to this day. To achieve that record, he had to use expensive lithography techniques to make fine wires for collecting current from the solar cell. But gradual improvements have made it possible to use screen printing to produce ever-finer lines. Recent research suggests that screen-printing techniques can produce lines as thin as 30 micrometers—about the width of the lines Green used for his record solar cells, but at costs far lower than his lithography techniques.

Green says this and other techniques will make it cheap and practical to replicate the designs of his record solar cell on production lines. Some companies have developed manufacturing techniques for the front metal contacts. Implementing the design of the back electrical contacts is harder, but he expects companies to roll that out next.Meanwhile, researchers at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory have made flexible solar cells on a new type of glass from Corning called Willow Glass, which is thin and can be rolled up. The type of solar cell they made is the only current challenger to silicon in terms of large-scale production—thin-film cadmium telluride (see “First Solar Shines as the Solar Industry Falters”). Flexible solar cells could lower the cost of installing solar cells, making solar power cheaper. One of Green’s former students and colleagues, Jianhua Zhao, cofounder of solar panel manufacturer China Sunergy, announced this week that he is building a pilot manufacturing line for a two-sided solar cell that can absorb light from both the front and back. The basic idea, which isn’t new, is that during some parts of the day, sunlight falls on the land between rows of solar panels in a solar power plant. That light reflects onto the back of the panels and could be harvested to increase the power output. This works particularly well when the solar panels are built on sand, which is highly reflective. Where a one-sided solar panel might generate 340 watts, a two-sided one might generate up to 400 watts. He expects the panels to generate 10 to 20 percent more electricity over the course of a year.Such solar panels could be mounted vertically, like a fence, so that one side collects sunlight in the morning, and the other in the afternoon. That would make it possible to install the solar panels on very little land—they could serve as noise barriers along highways, for example. Such an arrangement could also be valuable in dusty areas. Many parts of the Middle East might seem to be good places for solar panels, since they get a lot of sunlight, but frequent dust storms decrease the power output. Vertical panels wouldn’t accumulate as much dust, which could help make such systems economical.Even longer-term, Green is betting on silicon, aiming to take advantage of the huge reductions in cost already seen with the technology. He hopes to greatly increase the efficiency of silicon solar panels by combining silicon with one or two other semiconductors, each selected to efficiently convert a part of the solar spectrum that silicon doesn’t convert efficiently. Adding one semiconductor could boost efficiencies from the 20 to 25 percent range to around 40 percent. Adding another could make efficiencies as high as 50 percent feasible, which would cut in half the number of solar panels needed for a given installation. The challenge is to produce good connections between these semiconductors, something made challenging by the arrangement of silicon atoms in crystalline silicon.

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APPLICATION OF TAXES WILL NOT TURN OFF SMALL INDUSTRIES

The Ministry of Industry admitted that the application of 1% taxes would increase the burden of Small and Medium Industry [SMI] after the fuel price hike. However, this sector is predicted to be able to face the economic conditions after the fuel price hike. In fact, SME will quickly adjust is production. ‘We are optimistic that the application of taxes for SME will be not be too businessmen”, said Euis Saedah, Director General of Small and Medium Industry at the Ministry of Industry in Jakarta on Wednesday (July 3, 2013).

Euis believed that the SME are flexible enough to survive and keep growing. One thing that makes them keep the spirit up, she said, is innovation and creativity. Because, with this, they can survive under any blows. The government has issued government regulation No. 46/2013 on Income Tax on Income Derived from Business or Received or Obtained by Taxpayer Who Has a Certain Gross Turnover. Based on the regulation, SME who are subject to 1% income tax are individual or corporate taxpayers who receive income not exceeding Rp4.8 billion a year. The tax will be applied starting July 1, 2013.

According to Euis, although there is a psychological affect due the tax increase, SME sector will quickly adjust. The tax will make small businesses more organized. With the payment to taxes, she saw that SME will also get used to manage their businesses properly. Euis said that there have been no complaints from SME. The Ministry of Industry is observing how the rule goes.

She re-emphasized that SME will be able to rise even though the government collects taxes from businesses with turnover of less than Rp4.8 billion a year. They also have to face serve challenges due to the fuel price hike, but they will be able to rise again. According to her, SME will quickly arrange them selves to be able to produce again, in the tax levy will also bring a sense of pride in contributing to the nation.

However, Euis requested that there should be a separation between tax levy on SME an SMI. The reason is that they have a difference in conducting business. For the small and medium industries (SMI), they should do the processing. While, for small and medium businesses (SME), most are just doing trade without doing the production process. In addition, she requested that the application of taxes should not be generalized.

According to her, SME have different strata. Each sector has different characteristic, so the treatment should also be different. She said that the decision and calculation of taxes is determined by the Ministry of Finance. He party is asked only to provide input. However, until now, she has not received a copy of the regulation on the application of taxes.

The Director General of Taxation of the Ministry of Finance, Fuad Rahmany, believed that the application of 1% tax of turnover was relatively small. According to him, there are many SME who turnover is Rp10 billion per month. SME should be taxed 25% of the profit, but, he said, that the Directorate General of Taxation only collects 1%. He said because he target is not those at the roadside, but in Tanah Abang or Mangga Dua. He admitted that there are a lot of businesses who are operating under the name of SME and not paying taxes. In fact, if examined further, he said, the turnover could reach Rp10 billion per month.

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Wind Energy Association to promote small-scale wind energy

The two associations will collaborate on building the small wind market nationally, identifying and targeting Canadian provinces in which to pursue supportive policy initiatives and managing a Canadian small wind caucus, among other activities, they announced in a joint release.We are pleased to partner with Can WEA to ensure Canada fully realizes its abundant small wind energy potential and to build a collaborative foundation that will enable a cleaner, stronger energy future for both countries, said DWEA Executive Director Jennifer Jenkins.We look forward to interacting with many CanWEA members at CanWEA’s Annual Conference and Exhibition being held7-10 October 2013, in Toronto where we will have a pavilion showcasing the small wind industry, Jenkins said.Small or on-site wind is the use of typically smaller wind turbines at homes, farms, businesses, and public facilities to off-set all or a portion of on-site energy consumption.By joining forces, the two organizations say they will be able to more effectively secure and allocate resources to support the growing distributed wind energy market in Canada.

As members of both DWEA and CanWEA, small wind companies will have even greater opportunity to take advantage of targeted publications, reports, policy initiatives and networking opportunities offered by both organizations, they said.Canada is rapidly falling behind other countries in deploying small wind energy systems that can provide clean and renewable electricity for homeowners, businesses and remote communities, said Robert Hornung, President. This partnership will bring a strong and united voice to advocacy efforts to create a stable and sustainable policy framework that can facilitate the rapid deployment of small wind energy systems in Canada.Support for the partnership came from small wind advocates such as Canadian-based Endurance Wind Power, a long-time and active member of DWEA.This is a momentous time for small wind in Canada. Endurance is pleased to be part of this new partnership extending reach in North America, said Glenn Johnson, CEO of Endurance Windpower. Expanding to serve the active Canadian wind market is the right step forward as we approach the next phase of industry growth and expansion.

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Green light for Wairarapa wind farm

Wairarapa could soon be home to New Zealand’s largest wind farm after Genesis Energy was granted resource consent to increase the size of its controversial mega-wind farm.It has approval to build up to 286 turbines in the region at a cost of more than $1.6 billion.Consents for Genesis’s proposed Castle Hill wind farm were confirmed by the Environment Court today, after appeals were lodged against the original consents granted in June last year for 267 turbines. It had originally applied to build 286 turbines, which has now been approved.The proposed wind farm would have the capacity to generate about 860 megawatts of power. It would be situated north of Masterton and east of Eketahuna across 30,000 hectares of hills used mainly to graze sheep and cattle.In a statement Genesis Energy chief executive Albert Brantley said the appeals had been resolved by mutual agreement.”Working closely with the local community over the past year has delivered an outstanding result and having sustainable energy options of this scale is essential for the future of New Zealand’s energy generation.”The new consents had a 10-year lapse period, which meant Genesis would need to begin construction on Castle Hill by 2023.

In the original submission Genesis applied to build 286 135-metre-high turbines, or 242 155m-high turbines.This would have made Castle Hill the largest wind farm in Australasia, capable of generating enough electricity to cover the needs of up to 370,000 average New Zealand households.In June last year, however, the Environment Court granted consent for 267 turbines, which was appealed by several parties, including Genesis.’The Castle Hill Wind Farm Community Action Group submitted against the plans last year, saying the turbines would have a devastating effect on health and safety of the community.At the time Genesis spokesman Richard Gordon said there was no certainty when or whether the wind farm will be built.”Whatever happens there’s not likely to be urgency in terms of construction.”There’s still got to be an economic, commercial case for building it, and our view now is that the market is saturated with generation capacity and there’s no particular need to build new capacity of any type right now.”

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Carbon Prepreg and It’s Uncompromising Strength

Are you thinking about using carbon prepreg materials in an up-coming project? These materials are used in a variety of products in which high temperature capabilities are not an issue. They are also ideal for projects and manufacturers that require an extended shelf life. Carbon prepreg is a material with an amazing number of applications that continues to grow as designers continue to develop products that please manufacturers and consumers. Carbon prepreg is used in products where high strength-to-weight ratio is important, for it’s ultra light benefits.You may already be aware that here are a number of products that commonly use this material. There are a variety of sporting goods made with these materials like fishing poles and rackets. There are some unexpected uses of this material too like computer parts and even musical instruments.Moreover, the New York State-based company needs to sell products that don’t depend upon the big vendors to carbon sheets them.One of the ways to make them look more attractive and pleasing to the eye is to go in for professional flat steel wire wholesalers. It may surprise some to know that carbon prepreg lends itself well to things like pressure vessels and even the cases of rocket motors. Carbon prepreg uses are large and are expanding as new applications are under continual development.Due to the continuous traffic running over the china wheel sweeper for sale, most of the other floorings will develop traffic patterns over time.

Prepreg carbon is a carbon plate made from prepreg carbon material, that is usually a unidirectional fabric, rather than a wet layup which was vacuum bagged. There are some factors, depending on your requirements and your facilities of course,The battle to stay in the Bundesliga is set to go to the flat wire after relegation-threatened Augsburg lost 2-0 at Freiburg on Sunday. you should keep in mind, when considering this material.Carbon prepreg contains a slow-setting, high-temp cure epoxy already in it. Because of this the material should be stored carefully, on dry ice or in a freezer. A manufacture of this material will typically ship it packed in dry ice to insure it is kept at a proper temperature. It is read for use and is rolled or wrapped with a wax paper backer.During the second half of the year the company is considering leasing a mobile primary application for china visa in houston to crush the low-grade ore. The immediate benefit, no matter what project you are doing, of this material is that less time can be spent doing the layup.

There are a number of other advantages to this type of material as well. It is light, extremely strong, and has a modern sleek appearance. Because it contains straight fibers, instead of a woven fabric, parts constructed of this material, will be stronger for the same weight.Weight saving has obvious benefits to the manufacturer who must consider this when shipping products and to the end user who will be impressed when they realize they can obtain something that is both light and strong. Improved manufacturing techniques have continued to bring costs down too. So carbon prepreg lends itself well to both small projects and larger manufacturing applications as well.Purpose-designed, Vacmobiles are complete “ready-to-go” vacuum systems for a wide range of composite manufacturing applications. Now proven in more than 35 countries worldwide, Vacmobiles are reliable, versatile and affordable.?

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Wasatch Wind gets more time to start building wind farm near

A Utah company with plans to build a wind farm near Glenrock got a new lease on life for its turbine project from a state board Monday.The Wyoming Industrial Siting Council granted Park City, Utah-based Wasatch Wind Intermountain LLC a 10-month extension to prove it has sufficient financial resources to construct, maintain, operate and reclaim its project.Wasatch Wind’s financial partner, Edison Mission Energy, filed for Chapter 11 bankruptcy protection last year.Wasatch now has until May 2014 to show the state it has cash or financing for its Pioneer Wind Park along Mormon Canyon Road in Converse County, said Luke Esch, administrator of the Industrial Siting Division, the state agency that administers the decisions of the governor-appointed council.

In Wyoming, companies about to begin large-scale construction projects exceeding $190.8 million must get permission from the Industrial Siting Council, which analyzes permits and impacts to local communities, Esch said.Wasatch did not respond to messages from the Casper Star-Tribune.At a permit hearing on July 18, 2011, members of the Industrial Siting Council told the company that Edison Mission financing wasn’t enough, Esch said. The council wanted to see additional sources of money. The council gave the company two years to show it had additional resources to fund the project. That deadline — July 18 — is approaching, and the company asked for a new deadline of May 2014.

It is unclear whether the company has lined up additional financing.“I’m not aware of their current arrangements with any financial partners,” Esch said.Also Monday, the Industrial Siting Council altered the permit to reduce the number of turbines the 100-megawatt project would use, from 62 to 46, Esch said.“They’ve changed to more-efficient turbines,” he said.Fewer turbines does not make much of a difference to members of the Northern Laramie Range Alliance, a group of property owners in the area who are fighting the wind farm, said Kenneth Lay, who is on the alliance’s steering committee.“We’re not seeing a material change as a consequence of the turbine changes,” he said. “What you will have seen is they’re proposing to purchase turbines that have a somewhat larger generating capacity but effectively the placement of the turbines creates the same issues all along.”

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Applied Materials Loses Top Spot In Solar Equipment Market

Applied moved into the top spot back in 2008 with the success of its ill-fated amorphous/microcrystalline silicon turnkey business called SunFab. Subsequently Applied announced in mid-2010 it would discontinue sales to new customers of its fully-integrated SunFab lines.Applied’s first customer, pulled plans to build a factory in New Mexico in April 2010, while another early customer, SunFilm, filed for bankruptcy protection, also in April 2010. Signet filed for insolvency in June 2010. Spanish solar panel maker T-Solar has filed for insolvency in March 2013.Applied purchased HCT Shaping Systems SA of Switzerland in 2007 for $475 million and Baccini, manufacturer of screen printers for $330 million also in 2007. Applied purchased Varian Semiconductor for $4.7 billion in November 2011.Applied created a market for amorphous solar cells at a time when there was a severe shortage of silicon causing prices to skyrocket. SunFab (or Applied’s competitor Oerlikon) was the only way for a solar cell manufacturer to enter the market. Unfortunately, efficiencies obtained of less than 10% were not competitive compared to polycrystalline silicon or CdTe thin film competitor First Solar (FSLR).Meyer Burger moved up into the first position in rankings dropping 51% in dollar values. Meyer Burger offers a complete line of product equipment and services along the photovoltaic value chain that includes the manufacturing processes for wafers, solar cells, solar modules and solar systems.In July 2012, Centrotherm Photovoltaics AG announced that it submitted an application to file for self-administrative insolvency. Revenues listed in the above table are for Q1 2012 only and any financial information for the whole of 2012 is not being released by the company.According to a note to shareholders of Meyer Burger, “2012 was an extremely difficult year for the whole photovoltaic industry. The sharp consolidation process that had already started in the second half of 2011 continued unabated throughout 2012, mainly as a result of over capacity at solar cell and module manufacturers and steeply falling prices for cells and modules. Cell and module manufacturers were therefore very reluctant to invest in new production equipment.”

In 2012, an estimated 30 GW of new photovoltaic (PV) capacity was installed at private and commercial end users, increasing the total globally to over 100 GW (source: EPIA Market Report 2012, February 2013)., as shown below:Despite this solid demand for end installed capacity, enormous overcapacity produced by solar cell and solar module manufacturers in past years still remained. This overcapacity, although decreasing, combined with the significant decrease in the price of solar modules and the enormous pressure on margins at cell and module manufacturers has increased consolidation in the industry as a whole and even led to some manufacturers having to cease operations entirely.Survival tactics of solar cell manufacturers will be a bright spot for equipment manufacturers. China Sunergy CEO, Stephen Cai presented four key strategic business developments, which need to occur, if companies are to weather the solar storm: (i) higher efficiencies; (ii) downstream investment; (iii) global operation; and (iv) diversified channels.The first item, higher efficiencies, is critical for equipment manufacturers. As new solar cell designs are implemented or new processes designed to increase efficiency, new or additional equipment is needed. Applied’s $4.7 billion purchase of VSEA was because of its Solion Blue technology, designed to produce high-efficiency P-type mono-crystalline solar cells utilizing the proprietary patterned implant technology of Varian’s Solion ion implant platform. The technology is being used by Suniva in Norcross, GA. Suniva however, is a small company with a module capacity of only 170MW in the U.S.Solion is a disruptive process, meaning that a solar manufacturer will need to change its production line from a diffusion process for doping to an implant process.However, Applied Materials passed on an opportunity to invest in privately held SolarPA (New Tripoli, PA), which has developed a proprietary nanocrystal coating that increases the efficiency of solar cells by more than 1% at a cost of goods to $0.20 per panel, or less than 0.1 cent per watt. The coating is applied on a completed cell with no disruption to the cell manufacturing process and can be applied using a screen printer. In other words, Applied Materials could have sold more screen printers to customers who would use this technology. It could have even been used in conjunction with its Solion ion implant technology.

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Teesside wind farm, off Redcar coast, now has all 27 turbines erected

A MAJOR offshore wind farm, which will power about 40,000 North-East homes, has moved a step closer to completion after the final turbine was installed.Engineers have now erected all 27 turbines, complete with huge rotor blades, on the Teesside wind farm, off the coast of Redcar, with eight already supplying electricity to the National Grid.The remaining turbines on the farm, being built 1.5km off Redcar’s coast by energy supplier, EDF Energy Renewables, will be turned on throughout the summer, after further technical work and tests have been carried out.When fully operational, the wind farm will generate about 62 megawatts of electricity, with each turbine’s 2.3 megawatt capacity flowing through seabed cables to a substation in Warrenby, near Redcar, and into the grid at a connection in nearby Lackenby.The scheme has supported scores of North-East jobs, including posts at MPI Offshore, based in Stokesley, North-Yorkshire, who transported, lifted and installed parts on the wind farm from its 138 metre, six-leg jack vessel, MPI Adventure, operating out of the Port of Hartlepool.

The work also saw Stokesley-based Marske Site Services contracted to drop 7,000 tonnes of rock from Sherburn, in County Durham, next to the turbine foundations to stop seabed erosion.Christian Egal, EDF Energy Renewables chief executive, previously told The Northern Echo he was excited about the wind farm’s potential.He said: “As our first offshore scheme, we are delighted the new wind farm continues to make progress and will soon be producing electricity that will make an important contribution to the country’s renewable energy targets.“Developing a range of diverse energy sources is crucial to addressing climate change, securing supplies and providing affordable energy.“We are committed to maintaining energy supplies and affordable prices, and the Teesside wind farm will make a significant contribution to these objectives.”EDF has 21 operational onshore wind farms, contributing 300 megawatts of low carbon electricity in the UK.Including the Teesside scheme, a further 224 megawatts of additional capacity is under construction.

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Custom Notepads and Shipping Labels

The gap between the inner and outer wall is filled with high grade mineral glass wool, which in a way makes sure that maximum amount of thermal efficiency is attained. They are also incorporated with programmable alarms and a display screen that that allows constant monitoring of the device for any fluctuations in the temperature or other parameters. These enclosures are energy efficient, extremely reliable, have a sturdy construction and include corrosion resistant interior and exteriors. Stability chambers are available in both standardized and customized models that are designed as per the requirements of the industry.A part from stability chambers we are even leading manufacturers of photo stability test room across India and abroad. These chambers use UV and light that is visible, to check the stability of a product. The temperature range inside photo stability chamber is controlled and maintained by programmable temperature controller and indicator.
As per the requirements of different industries, these chambers can be incorporated with audio visual alarm, keyed alarm silence switch, door buzzer alarm, power failure alarm; R.F based remote alarm system, serial thermal printing facility and many more. The construction of these chambers is somewhat similar to that stability chambers.A part from stability and photo stability chambers seed germinators are another category of test chambers that are used broadly in tissue culture, agriculture industries and several research organizations. The basic use of these seed germinators is to regulate and maintain environmental conditions of temperature illumination and humidity that helps to uphold an appropriate environment for growth and germination of seeds. Apart from maintaining a controlled environment these chambers are even used in several research and development programs which involve the study of micro-organisms, tissues and plants.

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Tools to Boost up Business Traffic

Your website should be a balance sheet item, not an expense to your company, and it should deliver a measurable return on investment. Most Web developers build or rebuild sites from scratch with the focus on coding only. They dont take advantage of modular development technology that supports a building block approach of functionality as a reflection of your business needs.
The most basic and yet important internet marketing information you need to know is that your investment in this business would require only two things: an efficiently working computer and a reliable internet capability. If you want to maximize your earning potential from your online business, then you need to make an investment. This form of investment is very cheap as compared to the startup of other businesses.
One out of three event managers stated that they wanted to make more use of email marketing, email invitations and online registrations. With pressures on an organisation to reduce their carbon footprint, moving the promotional side of event planning online is not only more cost effective, but will lessen the impact on the environment.
Not every visitor will purchase something from your site the first time they visit, so you have to entice them to come back to your site over and over again and the best way to do this is to have fresh content. Write articles, conduct online surveys which the visitor can be apart of and offer information which they are looking for. Doing this will maintain their interest in your product and website which will one day turn them into a buying customer.
The main driving force behind the growth in Openzone hotspots has been the service whereby users of fixed-line BT services can share their broadband and broadcast an Openzone wireless hotspot alongside their home wireless broadband network.
If you learn by reading article’s by other author’s but do not copy them as it is best to have your own original content, you will soon develop a skill in writing. The tools that I use is a blog of my own i.e. one that is self hosted, and a piece of software called Automatic Article Submitter, the cost of these is a no brainer as Automatic Article Submitter has a ninety day money back guarantee so you cannot lose and owning your own blog site costs less than ten dollars per month for hosting and it will yield results provided that you follow this marketing strategy and stick to it, so if you don’t have the resources or desire to do expensive pay per click then I would definitely recommend that you try this one.

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